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Cutting tool geometry angles and select

Author : Xinrui carbide Date : 6/11/2013 8:23:22 AM
The cutting part of the structural elements of metal cutting tools, geometric angles and axes and other tools have many common features. A variety of multi-tooth tool or a complex tool, a knife teeth, are the equivalent of an ax head. Turning now familiar example of tool geometry angle.
1. The composition of the tools, the cutting portion Tools, the cutting portion from the rake face, the main flank and vice flank, the main cutting edge, secondary cutting edge and the tool tip.
(1) The chip flow on the rake face of the tool over the surface.
(2) on the main flank tool and the machined surface of the workpiece opposite the surface and interaction is called the primary flank.
(3) on the sub rear flank of the tool and the machined surface on the workpiece opposite and interacting surface, called a sub-flank.
(4) the main cutting edge of the tool is referred to as the front flank with the line of intersection of the main flank of the main cutting edge.
(5) the sub cutting edge of the tool for the front flank and the line of intersection of the minor flank referred to as the secondary cutting edge.
(6) of the main cutting edge of the tool tip and the point of intersection of the secondary cutting edge is called the tip. The actual tool tip is a small piece of curved or straight, said rounded tip and chamfer tool tip.
 2. The angle of the tools, the cutting portion
(1) measuring tools, cutting angle auxiliary plane In order to identify and measure the geometric angle of turning, you need to select the three auxiliary plane as a reference, the three auxiliary plane cutting plane, the base surface and orthogonal planes.
1) the cutting plane of the cutting plane Ps is cut by a selected point on the main cutting edge and perpendicular to the plane of the bottom plane of the shank.
2) Pr base surface of the base surface is the main cutting edge of a selected point and the plane parallel to the bottom surface of the shank.
3) orthogonal planes P0 main section perpendicular to the cutting plane and the plane perpendicular to the basal plane.Visible three mutually perpendicular coordinate plane, and constitutes a space of a Cartesian coordinate system.
(2) turning Geometry and select
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1) the angle between the rake face and the base surface of the rake angle rake angle is measured in the orthogonal plane. Positive and negative direction of the anterior horn of the provisions illustrates the tool rake face under the base surface for positive rake angle above the base surface of the tool rake face negative rake angle. The rake angle is generally selected between -5 ° to 25 °.
Rake angle selection principle: the size of the anterior horn mainly to solve the cutter head the robustness with sharp contradictions. First according to the hardness of machined materials to select the front corner. Hardness of machined materials, the anterior horn take a small value, and vice versa whichever is greater. Second, we must consider the nature of the processing of the size of the anterior horn roughing rake angle to take a small value, finishing the anterior horn whichever is greater.
2) the angle between the angle measured within a plane orthogonal to the main flank and the cutting plane. Posterior horn can not be zero or negative, is generally selected between 6 ° to 12 °.Posterior horn of the selected principles: first consider the nature of the processing. Finishing the posterior horn whichever is greater value, take a small value roughing, posterior horn. Second, consider the hardness of machined materials, processing materials, high hardness, the main posterior horn take a small value in order to enhance the robustness of the head; On the contrary, the posterior horn should take a small value.
3) the main angle measured in the basal plane of the main cutting edge in the angle of projection of the surface of the base and the feed direction of movement. The main angle is generally selected between 30 ° to 90 °.The main angle selection principles: First, consider the rigidity of the system of lathes, jig and tool turner process, such as turner Process Systems rigid the main angle should take a small value, this will help to improve the turning tool life and improve cooling conditions and surface roughness. Second, we must consider the geometry of the workpiece when the processing steps, the main angle should take 90 °, the processing intermediate cut into the workpiece, the main angle and generally 60 °.
4) Vice declination measured in the basal plane of the secondary cutting edge angle in the opposite direction of the projection of the surface of the base and the feed movement. Vice declination is generally a positive value.Vice declination principle of selection: first consider turning tool, the workpiece and the folder has sufficient rigidity to reduce the Vice declination; Conversely, whichever is greater; Secondly, considering the nature of the processing, roughing, Vice declination desirable 10 ° 15 ° roughing, Vice declination desirable about 5 °.
5) edge inclination angle λs measured in the cutting plane, the angle between the main cutting edge and the base surface. When the main cutting edge is horizontal, λs = 0 °; tool tip the highest point on the main cutting edge, λs> 0 °; tip mainly the lowest point on the cutting edge, λs <0 ° (Figure 5-7 shown). Edge inclination is generally selected in the range of -10 ° to 5 °.
The edge inclination principle of selection: mainly depends on the nature of the processing, roughing, the workpiece impact on the turning λs ≥ 0 °, finishing the workpiece turning impact λs ≤ 0 °, and generally λs = 0 ° .

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